Microfinance Institutions (MFIs)
A microfinance institution (MFI) is an organization that provides microfinance services. MFIs range from small non-profit organizations to large commercial banks.
"Historical context can help explain how specialized MFIs developed over the last few decades. Between the 1950s and 1970s, governments and donors focused on providing subsidized agricultural credit to small and marginal farmers, in hopes of raising productivity and incomes. During the 1980s, micro-enterprise credit concentrated on providing loans to poor women to invest in tiny businesses, enabling them to accumulate assets and raise household income and welfare. These experiments resulted in the emergence of nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) that provided financial services for the poor. In the 1990s, many of these institutions transformed themselves into formal financial institutions in order to access and on-lend client savings, thus enhancing their outreach." (http://cgap.org)
Why don't banks serve poor people?
World population with access to Finance (http://worldbank.org)
Formal financial institutions were not designed to help those who don't already have financial assets - they were designed to help those who do. So what do poor people do?
"Credit is available from informal commercial and non-commerical money-lenders but usually at a very high cost to borrowers. Savings services are available through a variety of informal relationships like savings clubs, rotating savings
and credit associations, and mutual insurance societies that have a tendency to be erratic and insecure." (http://cgap.org)
Some banks do provide these services, however. Grameen Bank in Bangladesh was formed out of a project providing small loans to women in the village of Jobra. Bancosol, a commercial bank in Bolivia, is also a bank which provides microfinance services for the poor of Bolivia.
However, the majority of formal banks do not provide microfinance products as microfinance is an expensive enterprise - you can make a lot more money on a large loan than a small loan, and you won't make much money holding savings accounts with very little funds in them.
Banks can make more money if they only provide financial services to those who already have money.